Judah Levine

Physicist, Time and Frequency Division

Dr. Judah Levine received the Ph.D. degree from New York University in 1966. His research work at that time was in the general area of atomic and molecular physics. After a post-doctoral position at Oxford University, Dr. Levine joined the staff of the United States National Bureau of Standards (NBS) in 1969. The National Bureau of Standards was renamed the National Institute of Standards and Technology in the 1980s, and Dr. Levine has worked in the Time and Frequency Division of NBS and NIST since 1972. Dr. Levine is currently a Fellow of the National Institute of Standards and Technology and is the leader of the Network Synchronization Project in the Time and Frequency Division, which is located in the NIST laboratories in Boulder, Colorado. Dr. Levine is responsible for the design and implementation of the time scales AT1 and UTC(NIST), which provide the reference signals for all of the NIST time and frequency services. In addition, he designed and built the servers that support the Automated Computer Time Service (ACTS) and the Internet Time Service, which provide time and frequency information to users in a number of different digital formats. The ACTS service is realized using a number of parallel computers that control a 12-line telephone rotary. The ACTS service receives about 4,000 requests per day. The Internet Time Service uses 27 computers which are located at several sites in the US. These computers receive about 8 500 million requests per day (about 98 000+ requests per second) for time stamps in 3 different standard formats. Dr. Levine is currently working on various techniques to improve the accuracy and availability of time signals that are traceable to national standards. Dr. Levine is a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and the American Association of Physics Teachers and is a Fellow of the American Physical Society.

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